So-called "white vinegar" (actually transparent in appearance) can be made by oxidizing a distilled alcohol. Alternatively, it may be nothing more than a solution of acetic acid in water. Most commercial white vinegars are 5% acetic acid solutions, although some US states such as Virginia have laws prohibiting the sale of any product not made from acetous fermentation of alcohol as vinegar. They are made from grain (often maize) and water. White vinegar is used for culinary as well as cleaning purposes.
Malt vinegar is made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose. An ale is then brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. It is typically light brown in color.
A cheaper alternative, called "non-brewed condiment," is a solution of 4-8% acetic acid colored with caramel (usually E150). There is also around 1-3% citric acid present. Non-brewed condiment is more popular in the North of England, and gained popularity with the rise of the Temperance movement
Wine vinegar - น้ำส้มจากไวน์
Wine vinegar is made from red or white wine, and is the most commonly used vinegar in Mediterranean countries and Central Europe. As with wine, there is a considerable range in quality. Better quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. Wine vinegar tends to have a less acidity than that of white or cider vinegars. There are more expensive wine vinegars made from individual varieties of wine, such as Champagne, Sherry, or pinot grigio.
Apple cider vinegar, otherwise known simply as cider vinegar, is made from cider or apple must, with a brownish-yellow color; it often contains mother of vinegar. It is currently very popular, partly due to its alleged beneficial health and beauty properties . Due to its acidity, apple cider vinegar can be very caustic, even burning the throat. If taken straight (as opposed to usage in cooking), it should be diluted (e.g. with fruit juice) before drinking. Others dilute it with warm water and add some honey. There have been reports of acid chemical burns of the throat in using the pill form.
Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines usually without any additional flavouring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, black currant, raspberry, quince, and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain tasteable in the final vinegar.
Most such vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a growing market for high price vinegars made solely from specific fruits (as opposed to non-fruit vinegars which are infused with fruits or fruit flavors). Persimmon vinegar is popular in South Korea, and jujube vinegar is produced in China.Umeboshi vinegar, a salty, sour liquid that is a by-product of umeboshi (pickled ume) production, is produced in Japan but is technically not a true vinegar.
Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic, aged type of vinegar traditionally manufactured in Modena, Italy, from the concentrated juice, or must, of white grapes (typically of the Trebbiano variety). It is very dark brown in color and its flavor is rich, sweet, and complex, with the finest grades being the end product of years of aging in a successive number of casks made of various types of wood (including oak, mulberry, chestnut, cherry, juniper, ash, and acacia). Originally an artisanal product available only to the Italian upper classes, balsamic vinegar became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century. True balsamic is aged between 3 - 12 years. One can sometimes even find balsamics that have been aged for up to 100 years, though they are very expensive.The commercial balsamic sold in supermarkets is typically made with red wine vinegar or concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar which is laced with caramel and sugar. However produced, balsamic needs to be made from a grape product.
Balsamic has a high acid level, but the sweetness covers the tart flavor, making it very mellow.
Rice vinegar is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. It is available in white (actually light yellow), red, and black variants. The Japanese prefer a light and more delicate rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi rice and salad dressings. Red rice vinegar is traditionally colored with red yeast rice, although some Chinese brands use artificial food coloring instead. Black rice vinegar (made with black glutinous rice) is most popular in China, although it is also produced in Japan (see East Asian black, below). It may be used as a substitute for balsamic vinegar, although its dark color and the fact that it is aged may be the only similarity between the two products.
Some varieties of rice vinegar are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings.
Coconut vinegar, made from the sap, or "toddy," of the coconut palm, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine (particularly in the Philippines, a major producer of the product), as well as in some cuisines of India. A cloudy white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note.
Cane vinegar, made from sugar cane juice, is most popular in the Ilocos Region of the northern Philippines (where it is called sukang iloko), although it is also produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste. Contrary to expectation, it is not sweeter than other vinegars, containing no residual sugar. In the Philippines, it is often labeled as sukang maasim, although this is simply a generic term meaning "sour vinegar."
Vinegar made from raisins is used in cuisines of the Middle East, and is produced in Turkey. It is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor.
Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East.
Vinegar made from beer is produced in Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Although its flavor depends on the particular type of beer from which it is made, it is often described as having a malty taste. That produced in Bavaria is a light golden color, with a very sharp and not overly complex flavor.
Vinegar made from honey is rare, though commercially available honey vinegars are produced in Italy and France.
East Asian black vinegar
Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice, wheat, millet, or sorghum, or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor. There is no fixed recipe and thus some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar, spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Chinkiang vinegar, originated in the city of Zhenjiang, in the eastern coastal province of Jiangsu, China, and is also produced in Tianjin and Hong Kong.
A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, is also produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu. Since 2004 it has been marketed as a healthful drink; its manufacturers claim that it contains high concentrations of amino acids.
Popular fruit-flavored vinegars include those infused with whole raspberries, blueberries, or figs (or else from flavorings derived from these fruits). Some of the more exotic fruit-flavored vinegars include blood orange and pear.
Herb vinegars are flavored with herbs, most commonly Mediterranean herbs such as thyme or oregano. Such vinegars can be prepared at home by adding sprigs of fresh or dried herbs to store-bought vinegar; generally a light-colored, mild tasting vinegar such as that made from white wine is used for this purpose.
Sweetened vinegar is of Cantonese origin and is made from rice wine, sugar and herbs including ginger, cloves and other spices.
Spiced vinegar, from the Philippines (labeled as spiced sukang maasim), is flavored with chili peppers, onions, and garlic.
Kombucha vinegar, also referred to as probiotic vinegar, is made from kombucha, a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria. The bacteria produce a complex array of nutrients and populate the vinegar with symbiotic bacteria which some claim promote a heathy digestive tract, though no scientific studies have shown this to date. Kombucha vinegar is primarily used to make a vinaigrette and flavored by adding strawberries, blackberries, mint, or blueberries at the beginning of fermentation.
See related articles: www.infozeek.net, www.d-i-wine.com